Prostate cancer has become a major public health problem worldwide. Yet, the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Dietary factors, dietary supplements, and physical activity might be important in the prevention of the disease. In the majority of studies, it was observed that high consumption of meat and dairy products has been linked to a greater risk. In contrast, frequent consumption of fatty fish and tomato products has been associated with a reduced risk. It has been shown consistently that high levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Dietary factors are also recognized as determinants of circulating IGF-1, thus changes in diet may influence IGF-1 concentrations in serum. Furthermore, increased intake of vitamin E and selenium (from supplements) has been shown in intervention studies to decrease the risk. Possibly, high level of physical activity is also associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer. The accumulated scientific evidence concerning the associations between diet, lifestyle, and risk of prostate cancer development suggests that there are some identified modifiable risk factors that it might be recommended to change in order to decrease the risk for this common cancer site.
Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, the National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Alicja.Wolk@imm.ki.se
Acta Oncol. 2005;44(3):277-81.Links