A document provided by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
A document provided by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
BACKGROUND: Studies of diet and depression have focused primarily on individual nutrients. AIMS: To examine the association between dietary patterns and depression using an overall diet approach. METHOD: Analyses were carried on data from 3486 participants (26.2% women, mean age 55.6 years) from the Whitehall II prospective cohort, in which two dietary patterns were identified: ‘whole food’ (heavily loaded by vegetables, fruits and fish) and ‘processed food’ (heavily loaded by sweetened desserts, fried food, processed meat, refined grains and high-fat dairy products). Self-reported depression was assessed 5 years later using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression (CES-D) scale. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders, participants in the highest tertile of the whole food pattern had lower odds of CES-D depression (OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.56-0.99) than those in the lowest tertile. In contrast, high consumption of processed food was associated with an increased odds of CES-D depression (OR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.11-2.23). CONCLUSIONS: In middle-aged participants, a processed food dietary pattern is a risk factor for CES-D depression 5 years later, whereas a whole food pattern is protective.
Br J Psychiatry. 2009 Nov;195(5):408-13.
Akbaraly TN, Brunner EJ, Ferrie JE, Marmot MG, Kivimaki M, Singh-Manoux A.
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Dietary fatty acids and antioxidants may contribute to decrease dementia risk, but epidemiologic data remain controversial. The aim of our study was to analyze the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of dementia or Alzheimer disease (AD), adjusting for sociodemographic and vascular risk factors, and taking into account the ApoE genotype. METHODS: A total of 8,085 nondemented participants aged 65 and over were included in the Three-City cohort study in Bordeaux, Dijon, and Montpellier (France) in 1999-2000 and had at least one re-examination over 4 years (rate of follow-up 89.1%). An independent committee of neurologists validated 281 incident cases of dementia (including 183 AD). RESULTS: Daily consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with a decreased risk of all cause dementia (hazard ratio [HR] 0.72, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.97) in fully adjusted models. Weekly consumption of fish was associated with a reduced risk of AD (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.994) and all cause dementia but only among ApoE epsilon 4 noncarriers (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.90). Regular use of omega-3 rich oils was associated with a decreased risk of borderline significance for all cause dementia (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.11). Regular consumption of omega-6 rich oils not compensated by consumption of omega-3 rich oils or fish was associated with an increased risk of dementia (HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.30 to 3.46) among ApoE epsilon 4 noncarriers. CONCLUSION: Frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables, fish, and omega-3 rich oils may decrease the risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease, especially among ApoE epsilon 4 noncarriers.
1: Neurology. 2007 Nov 13;69(20):1921-30.
Barberger-Gateau P, Raffaitin C, Letenneur L, Berr C, Tzourio C, Dartigues JF, AlpÃ©rovitch A.
INSERM, U593, University Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, case 11, 146 rue LÃ©o-Saignat, F-33076 Bordeaux cedex, France. Pascale.Barberger-Gateau@isped.u-bordeaux2.fr
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of lipid intake with baseline severity of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). METHODS: Age-Related Eye Disease Study participants aged 60 to 80 years at enrollment (N = 4519) provided estimates of habitual nutrient intake through a self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Stereoscopic color fundus photographs were used to categorize participants into 4 AMD severity groups and a control group (participants with <15 small drusen). RESULTS: Dietary total omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) intake was inversely associated with neovascular (NV) AMD (odds ratio [OR], 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.90), as was docosahexaenoic acid, a retinal omega-3 LCPUFA (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.36-0.80), comparing highest vs lowest quintile of intake, after adjustment for total energy intake and covariates. Higher fish consumption, both total and broiled/baked, was also inversely associated with NV AMD (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.37-1.00 and OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45-0.93, respectively). Dietary arachidonic acid was directly associated with NV AMD prevalence (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.04-2.29). No statistically significant relationships existed for the other lipids or AMD groups. CONCLUSION: Higher intake of omega-3 LCPUFAs and fish was associated with decreased likelihood of having NV AMD.
SanGiovanni JP, Chew EY, Clemons TE, Davis MD, Ferris FL 3rd, Gensler GR, Kurinij N, Lindblad AS, Milton RC, Seddon JM, Sperduto RD; Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group.
AREDS Coordinating Center, The EMMES Corporation, 401 N. Washington Street, Rockville, MD 20850, USA. email@example.com
The island of Okinawa located between Japanâ€™s main islands and Taiwan has the highest rate of living centenarians per 100,000 population, the lowest death rates from top 3 killer diseases (cancer, heart disease and CVA), the highest life expectancy for both male and female 65 years old and older in Japan, and Okinawan female has the highest life expectancy in all age categories: 0,20,40,65 years old and older, ranked # 1 in all of Japan. Okinawaâ€™s enjoy low-stress simple lives, regular physical activity, a strong community and social support, and they eat non-processed food: fish and soy foods, moderate amounts of good fats, locally grown vegetables and large quantities of tofu (high protein, low-fat, calcium, vitamin E) and seaweed (higher in vitamin and minerals than land vegetables). Miso soup with spinach or eggs with rice is a typical breakfast. Younger Okinawans are changing food habits and begin to experience the same health problems as Americans.